What is the “dual track” vocational training starting from middle school

shine trader live reports:

Germany is a highly developed country and the first of the four major economies in Europe. Its education system is very perfect and its education funds are very high. Germans pay attention to teaching students according to their aptitude. German education and cultural undertakings are in the charge of various federal and state governments. The federal government is responsible for education planning, vocational education and University legislation, and coordinates the national education work through the joint meeting of cultural and educational departments of various states. Germany is the first country in the world to popularize secondary education and the first country to legislate compulsory education: the Weimar constitution of 1919 stipulates that compulsory education is implemented throughout Germany. According to Kai Tak education’s 2021 report on studying in Germany, Germany currently implements a 12-year compulsory education system (13 years in Bavaria), free tuition fees in public schools, and partial reduction in the cost of textbooks and other school supplies.

In addition to the “dual track” vocational training, there are other vocational schools in Germany, such as beruffachschule and fachoberschule. Higher education is mainly divided into Universit ä T, Fachhochschule and kunsthochschule (Musikhochschule). Public schools dominate primary and secondary education. Higher education has both public and private components. At present, in addition to Baden Wurttemberg charging 1500 euros per semester for non EU students, most public universities do not need to pay tuition fees, but only need to pay about 300 euros per semester.

Primarstuffe at basic education level:

Grundschule: schools at the level of basic education in Germany are primary schools. Children start primary school at the age of 6. Generally, the school system of primary schools in Germany is four years, that is, after grade 4, they will be shunted into different types of secondary schools. Some states have a six-year school system (for example, Berlin and Brandenburg have a six-year school system). German primary school students have no academic pressure. The general view of German education is that if children are forced to teach knowledge too early, most of them have no speculative ability and mature ideas, and finally can only become a machine for endorsement and reading. Therefore, German primary school students generally have classes at school in the morning and take courses they are interested in according to their hobbies in the afternoon, such as handicrafts, cooking, musical instruments, etc.

German secondary education is very characteristic. It has a perfect system and diversity. It not only respects the development of students’ talents and interests, but also takes full account of students’ future employment. Focusing on the educational concept of “being the center of education”, German middle school education puts human development, human nature training and human subjectivity in the first place. These educational concepts are mainly reflected in school diversion, curriculum setting, curriculum content selection, assessment and selection, etc.

Second stage primary stage sekundarbereich I:

The level of basic education, that is, entering this stage after graduating from primary school, is mainly divided into three categories, and the fourth category is less comprehensive middle schools:

① Gymnasium, Middle School of Arts and Sciences (generally 9-year system)

Students with good grades usually study in liberal arts and science middle school. The academic system of liberal arts and science middle school is usually 8-9 years. After graduation, they obtain the diploma Abitur of liberal arts and science high school, and then they can directly enter all higher education schools. In Germany, usually only 30-40% of students can enter senior arts and science middle schools. It is connected with the advanced stage of liberal arts and science middle school.

② Realschule, practical middle school (usually 6-year system)

Students with intermediate grades usually enter practical secondary schools, which usually have a duration of 5-6 years. Graduates can obtain an intermediate diploma and have many possibilities for development. Most of them will choose to continue to receive full-time higher vocational and technical education. Practical middle schools are born for the needs of higher vocational education. They are a model in the German education system and have good educational results. The school focuses on training middle-level practical talents in industry and Commerce and government organs, focusing on Teaching Natural Science and practical knowledge. Its courses mainly focus on social science, natural science and language, with special emphasis on the practicability of the subjects.

③ Hauptschule, vocational pre school (generally 5-year System)

Students with poor grades usually choose to study in the vocational pre school, which usually lasts for 5 years. Graduates will generally enter the high-level dual system (DUALE Ausbildung) or vocational colleges, and finally directly enter the labor market, mainly engaged in handicrafts and manufacturing. The development of vocational pre-school focuses on vocational education, emphasizing practicality and method operation. The contents of the courses taught by students in Vocational pre school are relatively simple. The courses include religion, German, geography, history, music, technology, economics, English, mathematics, physics and chemistry, biology and sports.

④ Gesamtschule, comprehensive middle school

Comprehensive school is the combination of the above three traditional school types. Comprehensive middle school is based on Based on “equal opportunity”, the purpose is to hope that all students with poor grades will not lose better learning opportunities just because of partial subjects or other reasons. Students can choose higher requirements or simpler courses according to their abilities, and the syllabus also includes courses in vocational education. Comprehensive middle schools are mainly divided into two categories: integrated comprehensive middle school integrierten gesamtschulen, where students are fully integrated without score grouping; The other is kooperativen gesamtschulen, a union middle school. In this kind of school, students must have classes in groups according to their grades in some subjects. Some comprehensive schools also set up high school departments, similar to the advanced stage of liberal arts and science middle school. Some students are transferred to vocational training courses.

Second level advanced sekundarbereich II:

Connect the teaching contents of the second grade and junior students of Arts and science middle school (gymnasiale oberstuffe in the advanced stage of Arts and science middle school) and the further deepening of vocational education. The second level mainly includes the dual track system of vocational education system and the senior grade of liberal arts and science middle school. ① Gymnasiale oberstuffe, senior stage of Arts and science middle school

Starting from the 11th grade, the senior stage of liberal arts and science middle school is 2-3 years according to the regulations of various states. This stage has the nature of university preparatory course. Its compulsory and elective courses are divided into basic courses (grundkurs) and specialized courses (leistungskurs). In the advanced stage of Arts and science middle school, the teaching method adopts the kurssystem. Students can freely choose learning courses and key subjects according to their preferences and development direction, so as to prepare for entering colleges and universities.

Compulsory courses are usually divided into language, literature, art, social science, mathematics, natural science, religion, sports, etc. Elective courses are usually basic courses or introductory courses of various disciplines in the University. High school graduates can receive a high school diploma. In addition, more and more liberal arts and science middle school graduates choose to work in the workplace or continue to receive vocational education. Therefore, in response to the needs of social work, liberal arts and science high school also provides training of various key subjects related to occupation, such as high school technisches gym, which focuses on science and technology education, high school wirtschaftsgymnasium, which focuses on economic field, etc. High school students who graduate from this can also receive a high school diploma.