shine trader reports:
In Japan, state-owned and public teachers are called “education civil servants”. Teachers’ salaries are uniformly paid by administrative regions at the county level. No matter which school they teach in, teachers’ salaries, bonuses, welfare benefits and social security are the same. During the period of teacher rotation, if the local financial strength is insufficient, the central government will subsidize to ensure that there is no obvious income gap no matter which school in the state teachers are rotated to.
Andreas Schleicher, a staff member of the OECD Education and Skills Development Association, believes that because teachers are not employed by schools, but by the government, “county governments can ensure that the most powerful teachers are allocated to students and schools who need them most.”
Moreover, teacher rotation in Japan is mandatory. Generally, the overall transfer cycle of teachers is once a year, and new teachers will not be transferred within 3 years of service; Teachers are not forcibly transferred during long holidays such as maternity leave.
Except for very special circumstances, teachers teach in a school for a minimum of 3 years and a maximum of 10 years, and stay in the same city for no more than 15 years. Mobilize personnel from top to bottom, including principals, Vice Principals, competent teachers, instructors and teachers. Therefore, in Japan, it is almost impossible for famous teachers to be stationed in a “famous school” all year round.
In addition, although Japan is also an exam oriented education country, the personal evaluation and promotion of teachers have nothing to do with job rotation, and are not directly linked to the enrollment rate of students.
The teaching focus of compulsory education in Japan is not to absorb content, but to teach students how to think. According to the observation of some American teachers in Japan, Japanese teachers seem to be particularly good at cultivating students’ ability to solve complex problems.
This kind of ability makes many students from rich families participate in the tutoring of the high school entrance examination after class, but the students from poor families are not at a disadvantage. They perform well in reading, mathematics and other subjects by virtue of the ability to solve complex problems learned in the classroom.
In the words of Mingyan Takahashi, a professor at the school of education of depaulo University, “Japan’s education system tries to minimize the gap between excellent students and others.”
Another important condition for the normal implementation of the teacher rotation system in Japan is the standardized hardware facilities.
In order to better implement the job rotation system, the Japanese government has made supporting facilities for the teacher job rotation system. In Japanese public schools, in addition to the same income standard for teachers, all venues, facilities, teaching materials and AIDS in the school, and even lunch have been highly standardized. “A rural school has only more than 100 students, but its facilities are almost the same as those in the central urban area of Tokyo: a multi-functional teaching building, a gymnasium, a playground and a swimming pool.” Jiang Feng, an editorial writer in Japan, once wrote.
People who have been to Japanese public schools lament that “in Japan, every school seems to be cloned”.
“There may be poor areas in Japan, but there are no poor schools,” said John Mok, an anthropologist at Temple University’s Japan campus
From the practice of Japan, the government’s employment of teachers, supporting policies including finance and the strategy of compulsory job rotation are the key to the smooth operation of this system.
In addition, there is no correlation between teachers’ personal evaluation and promotion and students’ enrollment rate; The unified teaching environment can effectively alleviate the maladjustment of teachers’ job rotation; In addition, there is no distinction between key and non key public schools. Other factors such as public school students basically enrolling nearby according to their place of residence are important factors to promote the sustainable operation of the job rotation system in Japan.
Reprint indicated source：Shine Trader Limited information